Galena - 岩土工程软件
GALENA 7.0 / 7.1 / 7.2的更改和改进：
GALENA是的32位基于Microsoft Windows的程序，旨在以Windows兼容PC运行Windows 7/8.x10 32为或64位系统的速度运行。
Windows 7或Windows 10（32位或64位）（或以上）
Adobe Reader v7
GALENA - a powerful and easy to use slope stability analysis system developed for engineers who would rather solve geotechnical problems than computer problems.
GALENA is engineer-friendly software, designed to be easy to use and to save you time.
GALENA data structures are logical - definition is available at the press of a button.
GALENA offers clear graphical images for a clear understanding of the situation being modelled.
GALENA is a menu-driven program with toolbar buttons for all definition options, which makes it easy for first time users.
GALENA's model and analysis structure is designed for 'what if' scenarios with single option amendments for additional analyses.
GALENA's unique features are designed to provide users with the tools needed to take much of the guesswork out of the natural variability of geological materials.
GALENA is the program of choice of the US Government's Office of Surface Mining.
FEATURES IN GALENA
- Failure Surface Definition
- Material Strength Criteria
- Sophisticated Geological Modeling
- Restraints and Searching
- Water Definition, Pressures and Positions
- Material Profile Definition
- Defining Forces and Loads
Failure Surface Definition
Have you ever battled with circular failure surface definition using the traditional concept of an abstract point in space? And then tried to relate that surface to the slope surface?
The old way is just that - again, GALENA introduced a better way!
Circular Failure Surface definition using circle centres can be a thing of the past with GALENA's unique approach of definition in terms of the actual slope rather than an abstract point in space.
With GALENA you can define circular failure surfaces simply, by defining their X co-ordinate intersection points with the slope surface (X-Left & X-Right), together with a nominal or desired radius, and leave the hard work to GALENA.
GALENA can of course still use the more traditional definitions; you can even combine the more traditional definitions with those provided by GALENA’s innovative and leading approach.
Definition of non-circular failure surfaces is either with GALENA's CAD-style mouse line-draw function, by keyboard co-ordinate entry, or a combination of both - you can even create a non-circular failure surface from a circular failure surface in a few easy steps.
Definition made easy - the way it should be!
The image below shows a simple slope with an embedded material lense (shown in red-brown) with a phreatic surface passing through it - the material lense is simply modelled as a closed polygon.
The circular failure surface is defined by its X-Left and X-Right positions together with a nominal Radius and is now ready for a multiple analysis.
Embedded material lenses are simply defined in GALENA, and we have been advised (a number of times) that GALENA is the only program that can include material lenses thus.
The image below shows a simple horizontally-bedded slope with a thin weak clay layer (shown in yellow) just below the surface of the lower part of the slope. A phreatic surface exists at the base of the weak clay layer.
A non-circular failure surface has been defined (using GALENA’s mouse line-draw function to position part of the failure surface within the weak layer.
The model is ready for a multiple analysis - restraints have been defined to ensure the trial failure surfaces generated for analysis are all within the area of interest (within and around the weak clay layer).
Material Strength Criteria
The days are gone when you needed a program to analyse soil slopes and another to analyse rock slopes - GALENA provides you with both the Mohr-Coulomb and Hoek-Brown criteria for definition of material property strengths, so you can effectively and efficiently handle both soil and rock slopes using the one program.
GALENA provides you with the ability to use the Mohr-Coulomb and Hoek-Brown material strength criteria, and shear/normal stress relationships, for assessing stability of both soil and rock slopes.
With such facilities available in GALENA the need for a specialised and separate rock slope analysis package vanishes.
Mohr-Coulomb strength criteria is defined in terms of cohesion and angle of shearing resistance (c/phi), together with a material density. GALENA can also calculate and use increasing cohesion with depth according to Skempton's relationship for cohesive soils.
Hoek-Brown strength criteria can be defined in terms of m, s and UCS, together with a material density. Shear/normal stress data representing linear, curvi-linear, or similar relationships of your choice can easily be entered or imported.
GALENA also includes tables and Tools functions that enable you to estimate material properties for cohesive and non-cohesive soils, according to published data and information.
Tables and Tools functions are also included that enable you to determine RMR (Rock Mass Rating) from input parameters according to Bieniawski. Calculated or entered RMR values can also be used to calculate suggested strengths based on the works of various published authors.
The Mohr-Coulomb and Hoek-Brown criteria, as well as shear/normal data, can be used with all methods of analysis within GALENA, not just the Sarma method of analysis.
Material properties can also be defined for slice interfaces when using the Sarma method of analysis in GALENA, thereby allowing you to model discontinuities and/or joints that may have properties different to those of the surrounding materials. You can of course choose not to define material properties for slice interfaces and simply leave it to GALENA to automatically determine slice interface properties from surrounding materials.
The image below shows the results of an analysis of a proposed earthen retaining structure where the Factor of Safety was found to be unacceptable due to the nature of the existing foundation materials.
Note the distortion of the failure surface that has occured as a result of Restraints applied to an initially-defined circular failure surface - GALENA can generate and analyse non-circular failure surfaces from input circular failure surfaces.
The image below shows the analysis results after Stone Columns were included within the foundation for the same structure - a significant improvement in the Factor of Safety was noted that provided an impetus to the feasibility study for the proposed structure.
Sophisticated Geological Modeling
One of the unique features available only within GALENA is in the area of material profiles and slope surface definition, a feature that recently led one observer (a university professor) to candidly comment to us "I can see why GALENA walks over everything else available to the mining industry." And that was after a brief 15 minute presentation!
GALENA allows you to define geology or slope makeup as it exists or will exist, without first defining the slope surface, thus providing for rapid assessment of design options.
What this means is that the slope surface is entirely independent of the material profiles (that define geology or material layers), and can be moved, modified or re-positioned without changing, moving or re-defining any of the material profiles.
This unique feature also means that you save time by not having to re-define or change your material layers every time you want to change the slope surface, which is the way it should be - Stability analysis shouldn't be an uphill battle!
We should emphasis here that it is not necessary for the user to remove or strip away any of the profiles or materials that lie above the slope surface when modelling in this way, at any time - that is handled entirely and automatically by GALENA.
To better understand this feature have a look at the following on-screen images:
* This image shows the model initially with geology defined first (using profiles); material properties have been defined for each material (colour bands on each profile represent the material associated with that profile); and labels have been added to aid identification.
Then, as shown in the image below, the slope surface is defined (based on the mine plan in this case) - expected or known water conditions are then defined along with an expected failure surface for analysis.
It should be noted that the slope surface is not tied to any of the material profiles.
Once complete the model can be processed. The result is then displayed, as shown in the image below. (Trial roadway loadings were added subsequent to the first analysis.)
Material profiles above the slope surface have been ignored and are not shown, without intervention or any required action from the user.